Gender in Management

Paper Types

All full, developmental, workshop and symposia papers for this track are listed below. 

Developmental Papers

Gender, Class and Race Placing the Experiences of Men in Manual Work (277)

Author/sRuth Simpson

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsgender, class, race, place

Abstract: Drawing on Bourdieu's Theory of Practice, this paper explores the role of geographical place as a materialization of social relations and practices, in the experiences of white working class men employed in manual work. Focussing on Hastings UK - a seaside town that has been identified by Government as highly deprived. It shows how gender, class, race and place intersect, contributing to feelings of (often missed) opportunities and lack of possibility and potential.

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The Present and Future of Intersectionality Controversies and Challenges (301)

Author/sJenny K Rodriguez Stella M Nkomo

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsintersectionality, post-racialism, privilege, white supremacy, white fragility, empirical validity, racial fatigue

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the present and future of intersectionality, addressing the controversies and challenges that emerge from its theory and practice, in particular, the ways in which contestations about, appropriations of and resistance to intersectionality operate in a landscape of post-racialism, where race has been weaponized against itself and has instead been replaced by the un-reflexive discussion of privilege that negates its racialized nature. We argue that the only way to go forward is to go back to the question, which we ourselves posed several years ago: "Where do we go from here?".

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Perspectives On The Construction Of (Multisecting) Identities Of Female Academics In Saudi Arabia (394)

Author/sAsmahan Ibrahim Alsalman Chidozie Rudulph Umeh

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsIdentity Construction- Saudi Arabia-patriarchy- Narratives - Intersectionality

Abstract: In under researched contexts in the global south and specifically in Middle Eastern countries like Saudi Arabia, uncoupling how preconceptions of social and career constraints are infused into the psyche of women, and how paradoxes implicit influence how their sense of self is crafted while theoretically fundamental, remain largely unexplored. In this article, we introduce the construct multisection identities to explore contextual paradoxes regarding how patriarchal relations influence the construction crafting of identities among women in academia in Saudi Arabia. We adopt a qualitative approach, using unstructured interviews of twenty women in two universities in Saudi Arabia, whom we engage in a conversation in which they tell their life stories by way of narratives. We hope to contribute to the discussion on intersectionality and diversity management by showing nuances of identity identity construction among women in under researched contexts of the global south, specifically in the academia in Saudi Arabia and implications for addressingchallenging inequality.

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The Reconfiguration of Femininity: Comparing Neoliberalism, Postfeminism and Neoliberal Feminism (409)

Author/sPatricia Lewis

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsNeoliberalism, Postfeminism, Neoliberal Feminism, Femininity

Abstract: This is a conceptual paper which compares neoliberalism, postfeminism and neoliberal feminism as three key concepts which are drawn on to interrogate the reconfiguration of contemporary femininity. There is a tendency within current organizational writing to treat the overlaps between these three concepts as a given, as opposed to subjecting these intersections to critical scrutiny. The paper will focus on the need to not only consider their commonalities but also to understand them as separate formations which impact on the reconfiguration of femininity in specific ways with consequences for organizations and those who work within them.

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Gendered Networking in a Thai State Enterprise (417)

Author/sNayika Kamales Maddy Wyatt Patricia Lewis

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsGendered networking, Acker, organizational logic, family

Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrates the gendered practice of networking within a state enterprise in Thailand. Drawing on Ackers 1990 theory of gendered organization we will make visible the Family organizational logic which acts as a gendered substructure informing the way in which the organization is run and how individuals interact with each other. We argue that this Family organizational logic gives rise to the other four dimensions Acker identifies which include divisions of labour, gender identity, gendered interactions and gendered symbols.

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South Asian British Muslim women and their later working lives in Greater Manchester (487)

Author/sSajia Ferdous

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsSouth Asian British Muslim women, older women, life-course, transnational intersectionality, gender (in)equality.

Abstract: This paper explores how gendered migration and transnational lives shape the life long attitudes and behaviour of older South Asian British Muslim women in the Greater Manchester labour market in the UK. Drawing on in depth interviews with thirty first, second and third generation older South Asian British Muslim women living in Greater Manchester, the research situates these womens lives at the intersections of institutional, organisational and sociocultural terms and across borders to show how these intersections mobilise through shaping their attitudes and perceptions to subordinate and marginalise them in social spaces as well as dissuade them paid work. Findings show that the life long intersections of the social categories of difference of age, gender, race, class and religion with their different meaning within different social systems and hierarchies reinforced these womens status as outsiders in the UK, resulting in qualitative differences in their social and structural experiences. In highlighting their perceptions, understanding and interpretations of societal experiences, norms and expectations, the study contributes to the nuanced understanding of their attitudes and behaviour in the UK labour market. The study also contributes to translocational intersectionality and life-course debates by expanding on the analytical use of social categories of difference and cumulative inequalities to unpack and explain the simultaneity of the categories life-long positioning and effects within institutional, organisational, and sociocultural dynamics.

Keywords

Gender, intersectionality, life-course, ageing, migration, South-Asian women, Muslim women.
 

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Exploring the Intersection of Gender and Marital Status in the Middle East (490)

Author/sMaranda Ridgway

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsExpatriates, Gender, Middle East, Global mobility, marital status

Abstract: While studies have explored how factors such as perceived organisational support, overseas employment conditions, entrepreneurial undertakings and international adjustment affect the experiences of women expatriates, the intersection of being a woman and single marital status has not been explored. Single women specifically, as a subgroup of expatriate workers, remain under researched . Female non nationals account for 13 of workforce in the Middle East, however, many women only access work as a dependent on their spouses visa. There is a limited understanding of how a female expatriates marital status affects their experience of working in the Gulf Cooperation Council. This study builds on research by extending our understanding by considering the intersection of gender and marital status and the nuanced challenges and opportunities that this intersection presents. The expectation of organisations to increase diversity and inclusion demonstrates the necessity to further our understanding of the different ways by which the international careers of women can be facilitated. Contextualised in an expatriate reliant national environment, this paper contributes to the extant literature by exploring the experiences of female expatriates living and working in the Middle East.

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Gendered and Neoliberal Meanings of Competition in Women Senior Leaders Identity Work Discursive Escape and Strategic Agency (508)

Author/sSharon Mavin Marina Yusupova

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsgender, competition, women leaders

Abstract: Drawing upon an empirical study of women senior leaders in the UK, this paper examines the gendered meanings of workplace competition. The study reveals that despite operating in highly competitive contexts and occupations, the research participants discursively distance themselves from openly competitive behaviours and often do not wish to be seen as competitive individuals. This paradox presents a valuable case for analysing the tensions between a long lasting patriarchal norm of non competitive femininity and a neoliberal faith in the value of self regulating market competition perceived as a guarantor of high quality, constant growth and innovation. We argue that discursive escape from competition among highly successful career women should be understood as manifestation of their strategic agency and a protective mode, which helps women to navigate counter stereotypical leadership roles.

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When Women Lead Together: The Dynamics of Shared Leadership in Community Based Enterprises. (530)

Author/sLiji James Priya Nair Rajeev

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordswomen, community based enterprises, shared leadership

Abstract: Organizations are witnessing a major shift in how work is being performed, necessitating alternate forms of decision-making, interdependence and shared management that traditional approaches of leadership are unable to accommodate (Gronn 2002) or explain. Community-based enterprises (CBEs) are one such organizational form in which members have equal ownership and interest in the enterprise and contribute to furthering the shared purpose without a formal hierarchy. Kudumbashree is a poverty eradication program that started in the state of Kerala in India. It has poor women as its main beneficiaries, wherein members were encouraged and enabled in setting up micro-enterprises (MEs) collectively. The members have equal ownership and interest in the enterprise and contribute to furthering its purpose without a formal hierarchy. Using a qualitative approach, the study examines the emergence and process of shared leadership. Through a qualitative study, we tried to understand the emergence and nature of shared leadership.

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CEO gender, Female Representation in TMT and Firm Innovation: Examining Organizational and Environmental Boundary Conditions (645)

Author/sLi-Qun Wei Kun Qiao

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsfemale CEO, female representation in TMT, firm innovation, CEO self-efficacy, industry growth

Abstract: Drawing on the CEO/TMT research as well as the gender literature, his study proposes the determinant role of CEO gender on the female representation in top management teams (TMTs) as well as the moderating role of CEO efficacy in the relationship between female representation in TMT and firm innovation, with the further moderating effect from industry growth. We predict female CEOs are more likely to recruit female TMT members, but the positive female CEO-female representation in TMT should be weaker for female CEOs from a larger firm and who are higher in self-efficacy. Moreover, CEO self-efficacy negatively moderates the relationship between female representation in TMT and firm innovation and this moderating effect is especially salient for firms with female CEOs. Finally, the three-way interaction is predicted that the relationship between female representation in TMT and firm innovation should be the highest when both CEO self-efficacy and industry growth are high.

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Teaching for E/Quality. Steps Towards a More Habitus-Sensible Academia. (698)

Author/sElisabeth Anna Guenther

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsgender in academia, inequality regime, habitus, gender change policies

Abstract: This developmental paper discusses a way to foster more equality within academia. To this end, first different facets of inequality within higher education are discussed and how they are interrelated. Second, the concept habitus-sensibility is introduced. Habitus-sensibility is a social practice of agents, in order to bridge the own vocational habitus and the habitus of the other such as different students. Third, different phases for engaging in a reflexive process to achieve habitus-sensibility are sketched out and illustrated discussing the concept of passion. This developmental paper contributes to the discussion of inequality within academia by looking at teaching and showing a way on how to overcome implicit discrimination.

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Against The Odds:Women Achievers in the Nigerian Banking Industry (721)

Author/sOluseyi Adesola Kuti

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsPatriarchy, gender, senior management, coping mechanisms

Abstract: Nigeria is traditionally seen as a society governed by patriarchal systems of socialisation and cultural practices. These practices which are deep-rooted in the Nigerian culture appear to favour the interests of men above those of the women, influence the existing boss-subordinate relationship and ascribe an inferior status to the women. However, evidence from this study reveals an unusual progression of women into senior management positions in the Nigerian Banking Industry. This sector currently appears to be the only male-dominated sector in Nigeria where records exist of such a significant level of progression.

This research, therefore, aims to uncover the ways by which women in the Nigerian banking Industry have 'beaten the odds'. The purpose of this is to provide an understanding that will benefit women in the Nigerian labour market in the future and possibly, help reshape legal and policy frameworks to eliminate the worst excesses of male domination within Nigeria. This investigation is aimed at understanding the interplays involved which could highlight barriers to women's advancement through an examination of: (i) The position of the Nigerian women examined through a brief review of the existing laws (ii) The agencies, support mechanisms and coping strategies these women have utilised to confront the various challenges they encounter
 

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Prosocial Motivation and Promotion for Managerial Positions (737)

Author/sTokiko Nakamura Shinichi Ito

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsPromotion, Women Manager, Prosocial Motivation, Role Model, Women Career

Abstract: The number of women active in society has increased, but the ratio of female managers is still low. Many studies on inhibitory factors have been studied, and although the number of studies is small, the promoting factors are also being debated. However, although promotion occurs within the social relationship within the organisation, few studies have discussed promotion focusing on such social relationships. Therefore, this paper focuses on the concept of prosocial motivation to discuss womens promotion motivation arising from social relationships. As a result of the case study, in the absence of a managerial position as a womens role model in the organisation, it was found that prosocial motivation could stimulate promotion. This study contributes to the study of gender in organisations, illustrating womens promotion from the relational perspective.

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Navigating The labyrinth: Examining The Role Of Social Capital In Helping Women To Ascend The Corporate Ladder In Pakistan. (873)

Author/sAyesha Bano Sadia Nadeem

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsgender, social capital, social networks, national culture, career success

Abstract: Past work on social capital is general in nature, and very few studies consider gender as an important variable. Additionally, previous studies have predominantly been conducted in Western societies. This paper attempts to attain a deep understanding of how socio-cultural factors in an Eastern society, such as Pakistan, where gender egalitarianism is low, in-group collectivism is high and where women are restricted in their interactions with men due to religious norms, may impact women's ability to acquire and leverage social capital and ascend the corporate ladder. It adds to the literature on social capital by assessing the contextual implications for women in forming and leveraging social capital for career advancement. Semi-structured interviews are being conducted from approximately 30 women working at senior level management positions from various business sectors in Pakistan.

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PREVENTION OF WORKPLACE HARASSMENT OF WOMEN ACT: AWARENESS AND IMPLEMENTATION A CASE OF HEIs of PAKISTAN (932)

Author/sAmani Moazzam

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsSexual harassment, gender, discrimination

Abstract: Issues of workplace harassment and bullying have been prevailing throughput the world for a very long period of time. Post World Wars the world saw a steady increase of women in the workforce in varied fields. Over the years the workplace has continued to evolve globally giving rise to challenges of diversity especially with respect to gender. One of the biggest challenge has been workplace harassment of women of a sexual nature. This harassment is not restricted to a region but has been observed as a global phenomenon. Even in developing counties like Pakistan Law has been formulated to safeguard the interest of women at the workplacebut the laws implementation and most of all awareness are under question. The present study intends to study Higher Education Institutions and their policy regarding sexual harassment at Universities. Not only this but the general awareness of the faculty and administrative about the law in existence and its subsequent implementation. The study intends to look for potential answers as to why Institutes of Higher eduction lag behind in the implementation of a law which promises to provide a harassment free environment for its vulnerable.

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Is This Door Glass or Iron for Immigrant Women Workers? (944)

Author/sMuhterem Sebnem Ensari Esra Tahmaz

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsglass door, immigrant women, recruitment

Abstract: This paper addresses barriers faced by immigrant women workers during their international recruitment process by exploring their experiences. Womens studies have accelerated in the last three decades, with almost all the management literature agreeing on the challenges for women of adapting to the business life. The most popular issue in this literature regarding the women workforce is the Glass Ceiling syndrome, which hinders women's high level positions. This study aims to develop the understanding of a new issue, which is called Glass Door, as representing gender discrimination in the recruitment process. This concept has been defined and the theory built by Hassink and Russo 2010. This study further reveals additional barriers encountered by immigrant women workers during the recruitment process in their international applications. The study is an ongoing process, with continuous outreach to women immigrants from developing countries. Specifically, the development paper, if accepted, will be expanded by outreach to new international partnerships from other countries, including developed and developing ones. In this way, the paper has the potential to make a theoretical contribution by evaluating cross cultural differences in the recruitment process of immigrant women from different nations.

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The Gendering of Formal Mentoring at Work: A Systematic Literature Review and Research Agenda (963)

Author/sHelen Woolnough Julia Rouse Sally Jones

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsFormal mentoring, gender, gendering, systematic literature review

Abstract: A wealth of literature has emerged over the past 30 years documenting the outcomes of mentoring dyads in terms of mentor and protege outcomes and how these are influenced by certain antecedent factors. Specifically, research has recognised the importance of gender in mentoring relationships and how gender influences differences in the availably, construction, process and outcomes of mentoring for women and men. Yet scholarly work tends to focus on informal mentoring relationships, i.e. those that develop on an ad hoc basis, or does not specify the type of mentoring under review Janssen, Vuuren and Jong, 2016. Formal mentoring often implemented in organisations to replicate the benefits of informal mentoring differs in numerous important ways including purpose, structure and duration and scholars have called for formal mentoring relationships to be examined in their own right to progress mentoring theory Matarazzo and Finkelstein, 2015. Traditionally literature has overlooked the context of mentoring, yet it is crucial to fully understand how gender is managed and negotiated within the boundaries of organizationally sanctioned formal relationships given the gendering of organizations Acker, 1990. The aim of this paper is to review and consolidate existing knowledge regarding gender and formal mentoring in the workplace and bring new theoretical lenses to the discourse. A systematic literature review SLR will be conducted to generate a deeper appreciation of the gendering of formal mentoring at work. The paper will conclude with an agenda for future research and practice, building on the gaps identified by the review.

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Shame on her Poor Her Understanding the Impact of Patriarchal Orientation on the Perceptibility of Injustice Against Women (967)

Author/sPearl Malhotra Shuchi Srinivasan

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsTokenism, patriarchy, injustice, benevolent sexism, patriarchal orientation

Abstract: This paper aims to fathom the vagaries in perception of both genders of injustices levied on women. We assume that a patriarchal society incorporates metaphorically unequal distribution of resources, thus leading to several events of injustice towards women. We use the lens of patriarchal orientation of men and women to understand their cognition of injustice.

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Embracing The Causal Complexity Of Intersectionality Using FsQCA (1131)

Author/sZsofia Toth Martin Williams

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywordsintersectionality, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis

Abstract: Female managers often face complex gendered challenges, especially when they navigate in male dominated business environments. Intersections of gender, race, age, religion, disability and other types of perceived otherness contribute to how female managers experience the labour market. Intersectionality encourages the understanding of the interaction of these conditions and how they occur within connected social systems and power structures. We are interested addressing the causal complexity of intersectionality and outline how a configurational approach such as fuzzy set Qualitative Analysis QCA could help this exploration.
 

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Women Choosing to Opt-out of ICT Careers: New Perspectives on the Kaleidoscopic Careers (1139)

Author/sAparna Venkatesan

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsKaleidoscopic careers, opt-out, India, ICT careers

Abstract: Research has widely documented that women are increasingly choosing to opt-out of careers during mid stages Belkin, 2003 Stone, 2007; Zimmerman and Clark, 2016. Although organisational factors are equally argued to push women away from the workforce Hewlett and Luce, 2005, the academic literature has heavily documented on womens reason to exit careers mainly for family reasons Zimmerman and Clark, 2016. While women choosing to opt out during mid-careers for family reasons is found across all occupations Stone, 2007 studies increasingly point to the high exodus of women particularly high for the ICT industry during mid careers Armstrong et al., 2015. This study builds on Kaleidoscopic career model Mainiero and Sullivan, 2005 to understand why women leave mid careers from technology careers in the context of India. The study uses hermeneutic phenomenology to understand the reasons behind womens decision to opt out mid-careers from Indian ICT sector. The study interviews twenty women who have chosen to opt out of Indian ICT sector during mid stages. The study extends our knowledge and understanding of Kaleidoscopic careers in the Indian context, especially in the ICT sector.

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Full Papers

Women in Muslim-majority countries; Classroom - boardroom pipeline? (1)

Author/sLinzi J Kemp

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of the Pipeline metaphor for building theory about Women on Board in Muslim Majority Countries. A qualitative methodological approach was followed to identify themes on womens progress from education through employment to board level. Data were analysed of content collected from academic and industry sources. Four themes of metaphor identification were considered to contribute meaning about the phenomenon of non progress to board level Acceptance of organisation centric v women centric metaphor, Consideration of within domains similarity between source and target, Explicatory impact of metaphor for scholarly understanding, Generative impact of metaphor on policy and praxis. Generalisation of these study results is limited by the geographical context of this research, and further studies are warranted to understand womens progress or lack of to board directorships in Muslim Majority countries. A practical implication of this study is for a culturally sensitive approach to metaphor identification for meaning about womens progress in context. To see and think about womens progress from within their agency in societal context. The first academic study to investigate the contribution of pipeline as appropriate metaphor for womens progress in the Arab world. The value of this research for policy and praxis is the creation of a framework for rethinking metaphor identification in context.

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The Impact of Women in Management On Organizational Performance in Project-based and Non-project-based Organizations. (144)

Author/sMarzena Katarzyna Baker Muhammad Ali Erica French

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsWomen in management, Organizational performance, Project-based, Non-project-based, Resource-based view

Abstract: Project based organizations face challenges of increasing skill shortages and risks of reducing competitiveness and performance. Leveraging female talent can create a competitive advantage and lead to positive organizational outcomes. Derived from the resource based view of the firm and contingency theory, we predict that the impact of women in management and women in non management on organizational performance will be stronger in project based organizations than in non project based organizations. Using a time lagged research design and multi source archival data from 932 for profit organizations, the findings provide pioneering insights into differential impact of womens representation on organizational performance across the two levels in the organizational hierarchy and the two industry groups. For practitioners, the findings suggest that project based organizations may need to consider how they increase their innovative capacity and address gender imbalances to capitalize on gender diversity benefits for organizational outcomes.
 

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Gender And Job Crafting: Understanding The Role Of Gendered Behaviours In The Abilities And Motivations To Proactively Craft Work (428)

Author/sJack Daly

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsGender, Job Crafting, Inequalities at Work, Proactivity

Abstract: Job crafting, the proactive redesign of individual work, is an important managerial tool enabling increased engagement, wellbeing and individual performance. Despite increased academic understanding of antecedents and results, the important role of gender is yet to be integrated. Employing mixed method research, this paper aims to contribute to job crafting literature to recognise gender as an important force within an individuals ability and motivations to proactively craft their job. Through quantitative methods, it was observed that gendered behaviours can predict job crafting at a significant level. When further explored through qualitative enquiry, it was found that motivations to craft work and the role of an individuals social network within those behaviours differed based upon gender. Thus, important managerial considerations must be made regarding engagement, enforced gender stereotypes and social networks within organisations.

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Is It Only About Child Care Examining Malawis Gender Culture and its Effects on Womens Reconciliation of Work and Family Responsibilities (443)

Author/sTiyesere Mercy Chikapa

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsMalawi, child care, spousal attitudes, family responsibilities, work

Abstract: This article examines Malawis gender culture and its effects on womens reconciliation of work and family responsibilities drawing from the experiences of Malawian women in formal employment. In this regard, the paper firstly examines the child care arrangements and support with domestics that Malawian women in formal employment have and, for comparison, also those of men. Secondly, considering that child care is not all or even always the main focus of family responsibilities potentially affecting Malawian womens worklife, the paper also examines cultural systems and spousal attitudes. Thirdly, it investigates the expectations placed upon women. This article has argued that it is not just affordable child care that matters in managing the work and family interface. Spending time with children is valuable but spousal attitudes and community expectations also determine womens reconciliation of work and family responsibilities.

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Gender inequality and (lack of) career progression for women in the Australian Finance Industry (455)

Author/sRobyn Elizabeth Johns Kristin Van Barneveld Deborah Cotton Carmel Foley

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsGender inequality, finance industry, pay gap, women, career progression

Abstract: The Australian finance industry has long been acknowledged as a leader in providing innovative steps to address gender inequality. However, the industry persistently has the highest gender pay gap and one of the lowest representations of women in senior managerial roles. Reviewing the literature, this paper outlines the state of inequality in the finance industry and explores the barriers and solutions to career progression for women. The paper questions why, given the efforts in the finance industry to redress gender barriers, women are not progressing to the most senior roles. It concludes by highlighting two key questions for further research: Given the inertia, is the finance industry authentic in its attempts the address gender inequality? If the industry is indeed genuine, what are the inhibitors to action?

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Work-life Balance for Happiness among Working Women in a Patriarchal Setup: A Qualitative Study (456)

Author/sPreeti Rawat Natasha Athaide

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsHappiness, Work-life balance, hedonism, pleasant life, desire, engaged life, balanced happiness

Abstract: The study is focused on the efforts by married Indian women with children in balancing home responsibilities with work or job in their quest for happiness against the backdrop of patriarchal societal values. Patriarchal societies propagate the ideology of motherhood which restricts womens mobility and burdens them with the responsibilities to nurture and rear children and raise a family. With the rise of feminism and weakening of patriarchy, the traditional role of married Indian women transitioned from homemakers to career women. Experiencing happiness through work-life balance was getting what one wanted, leading a meaningful life by serving a higher goal, staying invested in multiple life domains so that the happiness and satisfaction from one life domain helped in coping with the failures in other domain. Data was gathered through interviews and was content analyzed. To stay contented and happy the working married women chose to be invested emotionally in several domains in their day to day lives. They were willing to work hard to not only keep the family satisfied but also find time for paid work which gave them financial independence. The experience of empowerment led to a meaningful life. The theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
 

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Occupational Stress :The Case Of The Staff Of The EHPAD In The South Of France (520)

Author/sAicha Oumessaoud Olivier Roques

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsEHPAD, Stress, elder people, healt, work overload, women

Abstract: The public health sector in France is characterized by understaffing and the institutions medical and social services, including residential care facilities for dependent elderly people EHPAD are not spared. This understaffing results in work overload, non flexible hours as well as other organizational and personal outcomes. The female staff of these institutions simultaneously manage important professional responsibilities and family responsibilities home, husband, children, domestic work. In this study, an ethnographic method was devised by non participant direct observation where we have conducted ten semi structured interviews with workers at one of the EHPAD of the south of France. This study will then shed light on all the organizational and extra-professional determinants interactions and the consequences which can give rise to a work family conflict of female employees and which could result in increased work stress.

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Corporate Governance and Gender diversity: Evidence from the UK (778)

Author/sTarek Ben Noamene

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsGender diversity-corporate governance

Abstract: This study aims at examining the direct effects of gender diversity on board of directors on the financial performance of a panel dataset of companies listed on the UK FTSE250 during the 2010-2015 years. The results show a positive relationship between the number of women directors and the return on assets and the return on equity indicators.

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Effectiveness of Microfinance Integrated Approaches in Supporting Womens Empowerment and Wellbeing of Family (838)

Author/sSamia Mahmood Javed Hussain Seemab Ara Farooqi

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: This study deals with the effect of microfinance on womens empowerment in Pakistan. This paper draws upon Longwes framework of empowerment to examine the impact of microfinances innovative and integrated approaches on womens empowerment and the wellbeing of the family, based on survey data collected from 300 women clients of three microfinance institutions MFIs from four districts of the Punjab, Pakistan. The findings showed the effectiveness of microfinance loans as positively impacting on women empowerment when credit is accompanied with financial services, enterprise development and social and welfare services. Analysis carried out using the Ordinal Logistic Regression suggests receiving microcredit tends to increase the empowerment and wellbeing of women. The result of this study are useful for microfinance providers and policy makers to better understand the complexities and interlinkages of gender, social and domestic norms in developing policy and microfinance products and services to support women empowerment in order to benefit the wellbeing of the family.

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Stigmatization of Flexible working arrangements: A Gendered Perspective of Higher Education Institutions (914)

Author/sAmani Moazzam Zoya Faisal

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsGender, Flexible working arrangements, Higher Education institutions, stigma

Abstract: The present paper analyzes the gender and flexible working arrangements in the context of Higher Education Institutions in Pakistan. The research focuses on whether gender and flexible work arrangements are considered a stigma or not. In the ever evolving workplace; flexible workplaces are becoming the norm. Male workers not only in Europe but also in Asia are now demanding flexible working hours. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted from the academic staff of both public and private universities that explored the research questions. The results showed that a clear demarcation exists in the public and private sector when it comes to the utilization of flexible working arrangements. People feel hesitant to ask for the said flexibility which reveals the stigma around flexible working. The gendered analysis of flexible working arrangements has showed that these practices are gendered in nature. The higher education sector shows the gendering of flexible working arrangements. The culture of flexible working arrangements is still emerging in Pakistan and absence of formal policies and lack of awareness is an issue regarding its implementation. The gender balanced approach is needed to bridge the gap between the working hours of men and women. This will de-stigmatize the flexible working and will bridge the gender gap. The awareness pertaining to flexible working practices is required and employees should be educated about the formal flexible working policies which should be gender neutral. This will result in the increased productivity and satisfaction level of employees.

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An Analysis of How MNCs Manage Diversity to Foster Gender Equality in the workplace A Nigerian Perspective (918)

Author/sLoliya Agbani Akobo Beverly Metcalfe

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsDiversity Management, Feminist Approach, MNCs, Nigeria, Gender

Abstract: In this qualitative study, we draw upon the works of Sandra Hardings Feminist Standpoint Theory and Joan Acker work on Hierarchies, Jobs, and Bodies. We explore the lived experiences of female engineers working in multinational organisations in Nigeria, to understand how they interpret gendered embodiment and then we analyse organisational marginalisation vs gender equality initiatives of two Multinational Corporations MNCs in Nigeria. The findings show that the most women consider their gendered embodiment in relation to their reproductive functions, attitudes, feelings and responsibilities influenced by personal values, culture and religion. Likewise, these organisations are male dominated especially at the top management level and technical roles and this creates a perception of bias and subtle discrimination against the female engineers who are the minority. Concurrently, the evidence of gender imbalance and the lack of gender equality amongst the workforce drives the organisations to implement interventions for gender equality and foster the advancement of more female engineers in the workplace.

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Decisions at re-entry post child-birth: Experiences of Indian women (978)

Author/sPavni Kaushiva Chetan Joshi

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywordsre-entry, role-congruity, work-family

Abstract: This paper shall focus on the experiences of Indian women who left their jobs post child-birth and returned to the industry after a prolonged absence. Instead of taking the predicted change in career (Lovejoy & Stone, 2012), these women seek to re-enter at similar or higher positions in the same industry, offering similar work hours and expectations as before. Based on inductive thematic analysis of interviews with thirty-eight women in various professions, we present their concerns regarding re-entry. Using Social role theory and Role congruity theory we describe three broad motives of women during re-entry and the strategies they adopted in order to re-enter and post re-entry into the corporate workforce.

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Board Gender Diversity and Firm Performance: Evidence from a Non-mandated Environment (992)

Author/sAruoriwo Marian Chijoke-Mgbame Agyenim Boateng Chijoke Oscar Mgbame

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywordsgender, performance, diversity, representation, participation

Abstract: This paper considers the effects of female representation and the size of female representation on corporate board and audit committee on financial performance in an African context where institutions are weak. Employing a panel of 77 firms, our results show that gender diversity exerts a positive and significant influence on firm financial performance. We also find that the performance effect of gender diversity is stronger for firms with two or more female directors, suggesting that building a critical mass of female representation enhances firm financial performance. Further analysis suggests that the inclusion of females in the audit committee (a committee as required by law in Nigeria) appears to have a positive impact on firm financial performance. Our results are robust after controlling for endogeneity and the use of alternative measures of board gender diversity.

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Intersectionality In Organizations Exploring The Relationships Between Gender, Ethnicity, Religion And Womens Work In A Postcolonial Space. (1074)

Author/sNene Nyeneime Ibokessien

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsPostcolonial feminist theory, Intersectionality, Gender, Ethnicity, Employment.

Abstract: There is evidence that more women in Nigeria are going into higher education as both students and academics. However, a key issue is that women are underrepresented in academic employment and leadership roles within institutions of higher learning. In Nigeria, women experience inequalities in the workplace not only due to their gender but also due to their ethnic or religious background. A major criticism of feminist studies of womens experiences at work is that these have been dominated by Western feminism, with critics arguing for the need to give voice to women in the global south such as in postcolonial locations. This paper is a case study of three universities which have been selected in order to bring to the fore, the regional differences which could influence the gender attitudes, ethnic and religious affiliations in Nigeria, their intersections and how they impact womens employment and career progression in academia.
 

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Womens motivation to lead in Small Social Enterprises A systematic Literature Review (1181)

Author/sKae Reynolds

Track: Gender in Management

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: This paper explores the motivation of women to lead in small and micro non profit organisations in the United Kingdom. A systematic literature review within a fixed timespan and geographical boundaries was conducted around key themes and semantic criteria. Evidence of gender differences related to the motivation to lead in the non profit sector was revealed. The review indicated that men were driven by pragmatic interests and ego whereas women were motivated through the opportunity to be change agents. Findings and implications are limited in scope by the geographical focus and the exclusion of grey literature from the study, as well as the nature of secondary research.This study provides exposes a gap in the field and new insight into the motivation to lead and indications for diversifying executive positions.

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