Marketing and Retail

Paper Types

All full, developmental, workshop and symposia papers for this track are listed below.

Developmental Papers

Examining Internationalisation Strategies of Emerging Market Multinationals in Luxury Fashion The Case Study of Shandong Ruyi Technology Group (143)

Author/sHuifeng Bai Weijing He Julie McColl

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsEmerging market multinationals, Luxury fashion marketing, Internationalisation strategies, Ruyi Group, Value chain

Abstract: From the perspective of international retailing, this empirical study contributes to the understanding of emerging market multinationals EM MNCs in luxury fashion retailing through a single case study which examines the critical success factors of internationalisation strategies of Chinas Shandong Ruyi Technology Group. Their international expansion is predominantly motivated by proactive factors including internal policies, vision of senior management, and the ambition to develop and control the whole value chain, from rare material sourcing and manufacturing to retailing. Their international expansion strategy includes mergers, acquisitions, and strategic alliances. In these alliances, the company holds a majority of equity which allows them to obtain a high degree of control. As a parent group, however, Ruyi regards all subsidiaries as stand alone enterprises and operates them through decentralised and localised management strategies.

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The Role of Culture in Shaping UGC towards New Product Design through Crowdsourcing ideas (164)

Author/sTahir Nisar Dina Saleh Alghamdi

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsUsers Ideas, Crowdsourcing, Product design

Abstract: This research will investigate the differences in product related beliefs in the crowdsourcing ideas of the users towards New Product Development, through the cross-sectional design to interpretation of the users cognitive response in terms of product related beliefs in the users ideas that through their preferences and judgements. The culture is considered to be a mediator in this study that will allow the researcher to interpret the results in the light of the cultural difference.

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The Critical Success Factors of Luxury Fashion Retailers Internationally Expanding into and within the Chinese Market (170)

Author/sHuifeng Bai Julie McColl Louise McBride

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsInternational retailing, Post-internationalisation expansion, Luxury fashion retail marketing, Critical success factors, China

Abstract: This empirical study examines the critical success factors of foreign luxury fashion retailers from an international retailing perspective in the period after 2014, when China became the second largest global luxury fashion market with an increasingly sophisticated luxury fashion consumer. Six retail case studies were selected from a variety of countries with different retail formats, key products, and ownership structures, in order to be representative of the market. The intention of this research is to explore the critical success factors which can help luxury fashion retailers and emerging brands to achieve success in the Chinese market. The results of the research suggest that critical success factors include localised marketing strategies, the adoption of omni-channel strategies in distribution and communication, and the flexibility of operational strategies to react to quickly market changes.

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Reconsidering the Narcissism-Luxury Link: An Exploration into the Trait-Like Psychological Variables Stemming from the Dark-Triad Personality Trait of Narcissism (183)

Author/sAybars Tuncdogan Zhoujun Yu

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsLuxury consumption, dark-triad personality traits, narcissism, values, needs

Abstract: The emerging literature on dark-triad personality traits have demonstrated several psychobehavioral outcomes of narcissism. However, we have limited information regarding the intermediary mechanisms through which narcissism affects these outcomes. One relationship that is already documented in the literature is the one between the dark-triad personality trait of narcissism and the general intention to buy luxury goods. In this brief report, by examining four variables (i.e. materialism, hedonism, need for power and need for uniqueness) through which the trait of narcissism exerts its influence in this relationship, we provided further insight into the nomological network of narcissism. The hypotheses are tested through a survey of 713 Chinese-speaking respondents. The results of the study suggest that the effect of narcissism on the general intention to buy luxury goods can be fully explained through these four variables. This brief report has implications for future research on dark-triad personality traits.

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The Rise of Online Shopping: Could Servicescape Revive the High Street? (287)

Author/sAdam Poole Georgina Wiseman

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsFemale Fashion, Servicescape, Online, Instore

Abstract: Against a background of rising online sales and the decline of traditional high street shopping, this study examines factors related to in store atmosphere and servicescape that may encourage consumers to purchase in store rather than online in the context of female fashion. This development paper indicates that fashion shopping is experiential for many female consumers and that consequently store atmosphere or servicescape may encourage female consumers to shop instore for fashion rather than online. Furthermore, this paper indicates that different groups of consumers have different preferences for factors contributing to atmosphere or servicescape.Taken together this suggests that if retailers undertook store improvements that enhanced the shopping experience by meeting these preferences, female fashion shoppers may be more inclined to purchase instore.

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Digital Resources as Competitive Advantage in Traditional Retailing: Capabilities, Applications and Performances (416)

Author/sAmela Dizdarevic Heiner Evanschitzky Christof Backhaus Andre Marchand

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsDigital Services, Retail Agglomerations, Resource-based-theory, Benchmark

Abstract: While the digital transformation is fundamentally changing the retail sector as a whole, practical adoptions of digital technologies through mobile or fixed devices in brick-and-mortar retailing can be considered to be at an early stage. Likewise, studies about the effects of such digital services on customer attraction are still underrepresented in the literature. This research investigates how the growth of digital services can be leveraged to augment the offline shopping experiences in retail agglomerations such as shopping centre and High Streets. Based on a series of expert interviews, we do so by evaluating the current role of digital services in retail agglomerations and compare best practices by means of novel and established performance metrics. We anticipate that this research identifies new ways to combine innovative technologies with more traditional services to improve competitiveness of traditional retail destinations.

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Exploring Negative Customer Brand Engagement In Social Media: A Framework Of Antecedent And Consequence (552)

Author/sOvinda Wijeyaratne Sheilagh Resnick Mojtaba Poorrezaei

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsCustomer engagement, Consumer engagement, Brand engagement, Brand related content

Abstract: Social media has established new opportunities for businesses to engage with their customers. Central to this engagement is customer brand engagement (CBE), which has been conceptualised as a positive relationship between a brand and a customer. However, along with a positive relationship, social media has also introduced a negative relationship, which is conceptualised as negative customer brand engagement (NCBE), and which can destroy the brand value of the businesses. This research aims to develop a comprehensive framework of antecedent (brand betrayal) and consequence (brand hate) of NCBE in social media, grounded in service-dominant (S-D) logic and the conservation of resources (COR) theory. The study proposes using data from 250 participants to test the proposed hypothesises in the conceptual framework. Using COR theory, this study provides new insights about the NCBE process, and offers valuable suggestions to brand managers to transform NCBE to positive CBE in social media.

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Loyal Consumers and their Brands: Does Sacrifice Exist? (559)

Author/sNora Alafaleg Dr Robert Cluley Dr Anastasios Pagiaslis

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsBrand loyalty, brand relationship, willingness to sacrifice

Abstract: The sacrificial element of loyalty is missing in brand loyalty theory. In a wider theory of loyalty, relational sacrifice is seen as a key element and a higher and extreme form of loyalty. Where people are willing to make sacrifices, their relationship are more stable and enduring. The literature of social psychology shows that loyal individuals are willing to make sacrifices for their partners or relationships. The aim of this paper is to develop the concept of brand loyalty through the lens of relational sacrifice. The paper concludes that brand loyalty consists of sacrificial behaviour and that relational sacrifice is more likely to be a key element of brand loyalty.

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Towards Sustainable Fashion Retail Stores (776)

Author/sJureepon Lueakha Prof. Anthony Kent Dr. Naomi Braithwaite

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsRetail fashion, Design Sustainability, Materials, Consumption

Abstract: The concept of sustainable retail stores is slowly gaining acceptance. In part this is due to the different approaches and practices evident in the market positioning of stores, from minimal designs in discount stores to highly designed flagship stores. The aim of this research is to explore the potential for sustainability in fashion interior retail design in the Thai fashion market and the use of alternative sustainable materials. This developmental paper introduces the problem of design practice processes and the opportunities for sustainable fashion retail interior design. An important aspect of sustainable fashion retailing arises from the sectors seasonal fashion retail interior decoration trends. Where designers use materials for short term store fit outs and displays, they must consider ease of transportation, installation, functionality and distinctiveness to attract the consumers attention. Measuring the key elements of shop equipment in terms of their impact of materials on the fashion retail environment should be based on its complete life cycle. The second objective of the paper is to understand the key issues in the relationship between retail brands and designers and to identify barriers to the implementation of sustainable design practices. This will require and understanding of retail brand identity to inform the selection of appropriate materials that will contribute to a sustainable fashion retail environment. The third objective is to identify the market opportunity for sustainable fashion retail design that could benefit the brand and consumer with new experiences drawing on an awareness of global environmental problems and specifically those in Thailand.

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Value Co-creation and Co-destruction: The Influence of Human Basic Values and Personality Traits on Consumer Choices (921)

Author/sOlabode Ogunbodede Savvas Papagiannidis Eleftherios Alamanos

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: Consumers and firms interact across various touch points along the value chain. During these interactions, value can the co-created or co-destroyed. The resultant value created or destroyed depends on the behaviour of both parties during interaction. When firms make value propositions, the resultant value co-created or co-destroyed depends on the consumers behaviour which is reflected in the choices they make during interactions. This makes understanding the determinants of consumer choices important if we are to understand value co-destruction. This paper focuses on the understanding how values and traits influence consumer choices during interactions with firms.

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Personalisation: A Consumer Culture Perspective In Online Fashion Consumption (1000)

Author/sMichael Paul Skinner Iryna Kuksa Tom Fisher Anthony Kent

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsPersonalisation, consumption, marketing, self, online

Abstract: This development paper offers initial exploratory discussion with the aim of providing a theoretical contribution to the phenomenon of personalisation through conceptualisation from a UK consumer perspective.

The rationale for the paper is that current conceptualisations of personalisation are from a producer perspective and emphasise the importance of relevance to the consumer to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. This perspective falls short in articulating what personalisation means for the consumer and explaining motivations for engagement with it.

In proposing Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) as the lens for exploring personalisation, discussion takes place as to the links between personalisation, extended self and consumption in the culturally constituted world.

The paper concludes by offering next steps in the study which include further literature review, methodological design and a pilot study.

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The Role Of Chinese Guanxi And Arabic Wasta In Attracting And Maintaining Customers Relationships A Comparative Study (1026)

Author/sAhmed Shaalan Marwa Tourky

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsPersonal relationship, Guanxi, Wasta, Relationship marketing, Relationship quality, Customer retention

Abstract: This paper proposes and empirically tests a novel model that links Eastern derived personal-type relationships, Chinese guanxi and Arabic wasta, to Western relationship marketing and develops theoretical and managerial implications of such linkages. The model uses guanxi and wasta as a means to attract and recruit potential new customers to the organization. The paper shows how to build organizational relationships with customers beyond the employee-customer dyad to maintain and enhance customer relationships over time. Based on a large-scale survey administrated in China and the Middle East, the initial findings show that wasta and guanxi enhance relationship marketing variables and relationship quality. The initial findings also suggested that the proposed model will help organizations avoid the pitfalls of solely applying guanxi or wasta and thus losing connections with customers when employees leave. The paper also shows how to adapt relationship marketing to non-Western cultural characteristics and problems, such as a lack of trust, in less capitalist economies, like China and the Middle East. As such, this study offers new and valuable insights for both Western firms, which tend to apply relationship marketing only, and non-Western firms, which tend to employ only wasta.

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Market Information Resource and the Development of Small Firm Marketing Capabilities (1191)

Author/sGrace Ellen Carson Christina O'Connor Geoff Simmons

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Developmental Papers

KeywordsMarketing Capabilities, Market Information Resource, Small Firms, Agri-food Industry

Abstract: Research Aim

This research aims to investigate whether an increase in the level of market information resource (MIR) possessed by a small firm is positively related to the development of small firm marketing capabilities, over a longitudinal period.

Theoretical Background

The concept of marketing capabilities remains relatively new to the marketing discipline (Morgan et al., 2018). Thus, we add to the capability view by considering the relationship between formalised MIR and marketing in a small firm context, with particular reference to architectural capabilities (market sensing/planning), specialized capabilities (marketing mix) and dynamic capabilities (transforming). Research indicates that MIR can encourage small firms to undertake a more strategic and planned approach to marketing (Del Vecchio et al., 2018). Indeed, MIR provides insights that guide firms as to which value-adding activities they shoul

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Full Papers

Sightseeing the Effects of Digital Payments on Generation Ys Buying Behaviour Digital Marketing Perspective (116)

Author/sMian Zeeshan Chaudhry Yehia Sabri Nawar Amelia Au-Yeung

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsDigital Payments, Digital marketing, Generation Y, London, Purchase Intention

Abstract: The aim of this research project to explore whether digital payments have any effects on generation Y's buying behaviour in London and would these effects lead to any change in their buying behaviour in the future. The objectives were to test the relationship between digital payments and generation Y's buying behaviour. Furthermore, it was to determine how generation Y perceives the concept of digital payments and whether effects of digital payments were in any way connected to the generation Ys indebtedness, which was reviewed in the literature. The study followed a positivist research philosophy and quantitatively approached to collect primary data from target respondents aged between 18-44. Thereafter, the data was quantified using the deductive strategy to empirically analyse and test the relationship between digital payments and generation Ys buying behaviour in London. Findings revealed that 98% of the generation Y use digital payments for their purchases. Whilst 77% use more frequently as compared to 23% who use occasionally but only 61% clearly perceived the concept of digital payments. Moreover, it was discovered that the use of digital payments influenced 85% of the participants buying behaviour. Whereas, 64% of the generation Y participants said that their spending has significantly increased since they have started using digital payments. Finally, it was established that 88% of generation Y would continue using digital payments in the future but data and payments security remain their primary concern.

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Utilizing Neuroscience Perspective to Track Muslim Consumers Behavior Toward Halal Products (126)

Author/sAllam K Abu Farha Sam Al-kwifi Abdulla Hamad Fetais

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsMuslim consumers, Halal products, Islamic markets, consumer behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Abstract: The global market of ethical products is growing substantially, especially the market of Halal products. Therefore, there is a need to understand how Muslim consumers perceive food products. This exploratory study is an attempt to study the brain responses of Muslim consumers to Halal and non-Halal food images using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. During fMRI experiment, the brain images were collected for ten participants while watching the Halal and non-Halal food images. Across all participants, the level of brain activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) increased significantly when Halal images were presented to them. The variations in the results may be due to the high emotional sensitivity of Muslim consumers to using religious products.

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Brand Equity and Customer Turnover Intentions: Does Customer Citizenship Behavior Matter? (162)

Author/sMohsin Raza Beenish Tariq Hammad Najam

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsCustomer citizenship behavior, Turnover intentions, Customer-based brand equity

Abstract: This study addressed the issue of rising turnover intention in Pakistans aviation industry and provide a theoretical foundation for lowering the turnover intention with the help of consumer citizenship behavior and consumer based brand equity by using the SOR theory. The data was collected with the help of structured personally administered questions following the intercept approach. Three most frequently used international airports which are located at Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar are targeted for data collection and total of 388 Pakistani flyers who traveled to international destinations participated in the survey. In addition, this study used SmartPLS 327 for data analysis with the help of a two stage approach. The results state that CBBE has a significant effect on CCB and CCB has a significant impact on turnover intentions. Furthermore, CCB plays the role of an important mediator for the effect of CBBE on turnover intention. These results enhance existing literature about lowering the turnover intention with the help of CCB and CBBE in aviation industry of Pakistan. Furthermore, it also highlighted that managers and practitioners should improve customer engagement for exhibiting CCB to reduce customer turnover intentions in the aviation industry of Pakistan.

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Sharing My Experience or Yours: The Differential Influence of Self, Social and Social Intention Needs in Stimulating Positive Word of Mouth (290)

Author/sRahul Chawdhary Francesca Dall'Olmo Riley Chris Hand

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsWOM Generators, WOM Transmitters, Word of Mouth, Self, PWOM

Abstract: Previous research on word of mouth hereafter, WOM distinguishes between two types of WOM senders, WOM Generators who are likely to articulate recommendations based on their own consumption experience and WOM Transmitters who are likely to engage in recommendations derived via other people consumption experience. However, while extant literature has extensively examined multiple drivers or stimulants of positive WOM intentions hereafter, PWOM, such literature has overlooked the possibility that drivers of PWOM may depend on the nature of individuals consumption experience i.e customers recommendations based on their own first hand consumption experience with a product or service or someone elses consumption experience. This study contributes to the WOM literature by offering insights that psychological antecedents of PWOM differ between WOM Generators and Transmitters. Thus, future research must take into account the type of WOM sender when investigating the antecedents of PWOM and also extend the examination to the antecedents of negative word of mouth for Generators and Transmitters.

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Paint it, Black Exploring the Development of Negative Emotions towards the Brand (309)

Author/sSabrina Stroehlein Franz-Rudolf Esch

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsNegative emotions, brand, negative brand relationships, consumer emotions, determinants

Abstract: While positive emotions in towards brands have already been thoroughly investigated by numerous researchers, negative emotions towards the brand are rarely in the focus. This study explores the development of negative emotions towards brands. We investigate different determinants and influencing factors and how they lead to negative emotions such as anger, sadness, dislike, discontent, worry, or embarrassment. In 20 in-depth interviews consumers referred to 15 different brands from several industries that generated negative feelings. Our research states that the antecedents can be clustered into nine different categories of which seven can be controlled and two cannot directly be controlled by companies. We conclude with suggestions on how to turn negative emotions into positive feelings. Lastly, implications for theory and practice are given and suggestions for a future research agenda are made.

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Customer Journeys: A Systematic Analysis (318)

Author/sYanika Tueanrat Eleftherios Alamanos Savvas Papagiannidis

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsCustomer journey, Systematic review, Content analysis, Customer experience

Abstract: Customer journey has become an increasingly important tool to understand the complex customer behaviour and get insights into their experience. While the term has been widely used, its definitions and approach remain incoherent. This paper followed a systematic review method to analyse the components and underlying themes of the customer journey presented in the business literature prior to January 2018. Searches in Scopus, EBSCO and Web of Science identified 81 relevant papers for the quantitative content analysis. Six themes were identified as the underlying aspects of the customer journey.

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Towards a Measure of Brand Age (421)

Author/sBoris Bartikowski Heiner Evanschitzky Sharon Beatty Stephanie Gillison Dennis Herhausen

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsAge, Anthropomorphization, Brand Personality, Scale Development

Abstract: Marketers frequently use age to signal either the youngness or the maturity of their brand and related associations such as expertise, authenticity, innovativeness, or voguishness. However, research with an explicit focus on age dimension of brand personality is limited. Drawing on the literature on consumer-brand relationships, brand anthropomorphization, and human aging, we offer a theory-driven conceptualization and definition of perceived brand age. This is followed by the initial steps to develop a measure for perceptual brand age dimensions, consisting of an extensive item-generation process and an initial quantitative validation. The brand age scale consists of four perceptual age dimensions that reflect Young and Old as higher-order age dimensions; Young is reflected by two dimensions that we termed Trendy and Rejuvenating, and Old is reflected by two dimensions that we termed Experienced and Nostalgic.

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The Role of Credit Card Use and Consumers Spending Behavior A Key Indicator of Financial Debt (548)

Author/sMuhammad Iqbal Rana Tehmina Latif Dr.Sania Zahra Malik

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: The purpose of current study is to investigate the determinants Credit Card Knowledge, Attitude towards credit card usage, Aggressive Promotion by Credit Card Industry, Easy Access to Credit and Minimum Payment Requirement of consumers financial debt Dependent Variable in Pakistan. The data has been collected from 400 consumers, from three big cities, who use credit cards. Multistage cluster sampling technique has been used to obtain needful response. The data has been analyzed through SPSS by applying multiple regression analysis. The findings of the current research indicate that three independent variables such as Credit Card Knowledge, Attitude towards credit card usage and Aggressive Promotion by Credit Card Industry are responsible for 60% change in Consumers financial debt dependent variable. The contribution of the study and managerial implications are discussed towards the end of the paper.

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Role Of Actors Internal Disposition In Value Co Creation, A Case In Retail Industry (551)

Author/sBalkrushna Potdar Donia Waseem Tony Garry

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsService-dominant logic, Value Co-creation, Internal Disposition

Abstract: This paper aims to explore the role of an actors internal disposition in value co creation in retail industry. Specifically, it explores the drivers which influences an employees internal disposition to prevent shoplifting in supermarkets. Within an interpretive paradigm, this research uses phenomenology as the research design. Data was collected using interviews from 26 shop-floor employees from two national supermarket chains in New Zealand. The participants would regularly shop at their workplace i.e supermarket and in a way were regular customers of their respective stores. The findings suggest characteristics of drivers which influence an employees internal disposition to initiate value co creation in the form of shoplifting prevention such as the actors engagement quality, nurturing work environment, future growth opportunities, employee ownership, and employees willingness towards shoplifting prevention. The article makes two contributions to the literature. First, it advances the conceptualization of disposition that focuses on the employees experience that occurs among actors while they exhibit a voluntary behavior. Second, it offers a step towards clarifying the role of employees disposition in value co creation. By doing so, it contributes towards a more balanced theoretical foundation for SD logic.

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Dementia Friendly Service Provision in Local Cafes and Restaurants (646)

Author/sAdelina Broadbridge David Johnston

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: Although awareness of the dementia has improved, there has been very little research regarding the relationship between dementia and its potential impact on businesses. This paper provides some understanding as to what the experiences of people with dementia can be when using cafes or restaurants and examine the relative importance of service quality and coproduction in helping to meet their needs and those of their carers from the perspective of the carers and the cafe or restaurant owners. Semi structured interviews with business owners and employees and with carers of people with dementia the research were conducted and examined the different factors of importance regarding service quality in cafes or restaurants for those suffering with dementia. The findings showed that cafes and restaurants overall awareness and understanding of dementia is low but slowly improving. There were important differences between what the carers and owners and employees considered to be most important with regard to the service element, and recommendations are made to how cafes and restaurants can adapt their service to better accommodate the needs of this growing proportion of the population.

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Brand Loyalty Management; the Role of Brand Trust and Brand Experience? (743)

Author/sHashed Ahmad Mabkhot Hamid Mahmood Gelaidan

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywordsbrand Loyalty Management, Brand experience, and trust, Automobile industry, Local brand, Malaysia.

Abstract: The objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of brand experience on brand loyalty mediated by brand trust of local automobile brands in Malaysia. The motivation of undertaken this study was due to the lack of study in the brand loyalty toward local brand, particularly in automobile sector and in Malaysian context. Data were collected from 330 participants in a selected mall using the mall-intercept data collection technique. Structural equation modelling-SmartPLS was the fundamental of data analysis. Findings revealed a strong significant relationship between brand experience and brand loyalty. It also showed that brand trust playing a mediated role of these relationships. This study provide alternative recommendations to local automobile industry authorities and policymakers on how to build a brand and retain brand loyalty, and it contributes to enrich the current literature.

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The Mutuality Of Mutuals The Role Of The Corporate Brand And Its Brand Community In A Moralised Organisation (794)

Author/sKeith Glanfield David Dose Patrick Reedy

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywords: N/A

Abstract: Mutual organisations differ from conventional shareholder owned enterprises. Operated for the benefit of their members, not external shareholders, they are characterised by representative or direct democratic structures, shared ownership by their members and the distribution of surpluses. Mutuals are community based moralised organisations, they do not highly rely on idiosyncratic individualism and the competitiveness of individuals pursuing individualised entrepreneurial careers. This study contribution challenges established branding theory that proposes frontline staff are separately and independently influenced by internal employee facing and external customer facing branding phenomena. Conducted in a UK mutual retailing organisation, the study reveals front-line members FLMs do not separately distinguish between internal employee facing and external customer facing corporate branding phenomena. Rather these phenomena combine to form the moralised elements of a mutuals corporate brand, influencing FLM identification with the mutual, with the strength of this identification strongly influencing FLM brand community activity. The study establishes the importance of moralisation for brand community development and how a brand community operates in a mutual organisation.

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Factors Influencing Word of Mouth Behaviour of Restaurant Industry in Pakistan (798)

Author/sMubbsher Munawar Khan Nida Hameed Hina Shabbir

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywordscommitment, consumer behaviour, customer satisfaction, trust, restaurant relationship quality, restaurant industry, word of mouth (WOM), electronic word of mouth (eWOM)

Abstract: The purpose of this research paper was to study the factors that influence word of mouth (WOM) behavior with the crucial role of relationship quality. WOM is a free form of advertisement or promotion which is shared by customers with one another. It is triggered by an event the customer experiences. WOM marketing is nowadays considered as the most valuable source of marketing. The cheapest source of promotion for restaurants is WOM. WOM plays a crucial role in the services industry because services are difficult to assess as they are experiential in nature. A detailed review of the literature was conducted in order to find out the factors that influence WOM behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the customers of restaurants including students. For data collection, 400 questionnaires were distributed out of which 328 questionnaires were used for the analyses. Structured equation modeling was used for the analysis of the model. The results depict that food quality, price fairness, perceived value, and personal interaction quality does improve WOM behavior through the mediation of relationship quality. Whereas the physical environment has a negative impact on customer satisfaction. This study will help the restaurateurs to create something unique and distinctive for the customers in order to enhance the WOM intention of the restaurant industry.

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Value Creation or Destruction: The Role of Private label in UK Grocery Category Management Decisions (800)

Author/sMichael Christopher Benson Paul Beresford Craig` Hirst

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsCategory Management, Retailing, Value Creation, Value Destruction, Private Label

Abstract: Category management is a collaborative approach between food manufacturers and retailers to manage product categories rather than individual brands. It operates at both strategic and operational levels and seeks to create value ultimately for the consumer. The paper contributes to the literature and practice. It uses a qualitative interview study of twenty five senior practitioners and explores the role of private label products within UK grocery categories as consumers continue to switch due to lower prices and comparable quality to the traditional brands. The research also examines how private label manufacturers can create value within the category management relationship and how they can aspire to category captainship if they generate retailer specific and differentiated category strategies. The paper accepts its limitations and explains how further research in this important field of retailing is necessary to update the literature and help practitioners navigate their way through turbulent sector change.

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Informing Retail Investors about Financial Products: The Impact of Horizon and Framing Effects (847)

Author/sCarola Hillenbrand Anastasiya Saraeva Kevin Money Chris Brooks

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsRetail Investors, financial products, horizon, framing

Abstract: Not much is known to date about how the framing of information about financial products impacts UK retail investor assessment of and engagement with products. To explore this lacuna, we apply framing conditions to the context of RIs and systematically vary financial product description and imagery in terms of time horizon, short-term versus long-term and investment goal, achieve versus protect in a 2 by 2 quasi experimental study. Data from 787 UK based RIs collected in the summer of 2017 is analysed using ANOVA and PLS SEM multi group analysis, revealing novel findings for both framing conditions, insights in relation to person related and context related predictor variables as well as differences in relation to control variables age, gender, income, home ownership, financial knowledge and financial experience. Implications arising from our study are briefly discussed in relation to research, practice and policy.

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A Social Media Affordances Maturity Scale For Organisations (904)

Author/sAnnmarie Hanlon Karen Jones Alison Lawson

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

Keywordssocial media, affordances, maturity scale, organisations

Abstract: This paper extends current understanding of social media affordances within an organisational context. Seven affordances were confirmed as being present within the organisational management of social media. Subsequent exploration of the affordances led to the construction of a framework to categorise the variations of application, into different stages, which focused on the levels of maturity demonstrated by interview participants. This framework is introduced as a social media affordances maturity scale. The implication for management is the ability to classify current levels of social media affordances maturity and understand the critical steps needed to move towards greater maturity, thus adopting enlightened management practices in the challenging and changing environment of social media.

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Understand the Corporate Branding in SME context: An Exploratory Study (952)

Author/sSerap Sap Selcuk Uygur

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsEntrepreneur Personality, Product Branding, Corporate Branding, SMEs

Abstract: Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) represent the fundamental majority of world`s economy. They are backbones for economy and corporate branding can be a new way for SMEs to differentiate themselves from their competitors while improving customer satisfaction and loyalty by creating values for them. However, existing corporate branding studies are focus on more on multinational/big companies, yet corporate brand should be applied to all type of sizes and corporate brand building process in SME context needs to be clarified explicitly. The aim of this study is to explore corporate brand building process in SME context and identify the antecedents and its consequences on its performance. The practical contribution of this study and its managerial implications are helping SMEs to understand corporate brand building process and implement as a corporate long-term strategy to have competitive advantage and to enhance their performance. In order to achieve the goal of this research, qualitative approach was adopted. Semi-structure in-depth interviews were applied to fifteen SME owner-managers to gain deeper understanding on the content.

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Deceptive Status Signaling through Fake Luxury Brands: Is it Effective? (1047)

Author/sGeorge Baltas Vassia Kontopoulou Flora Kokkinaki

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsConsumer psychology, evolutionary psychology, counterfeit luxury products

Abstract: Consumers may use luxury brands as a means of impressing other people and displaying status. Individuals may purchase fake luxury products for their ability to confer status at a lower cost. But is this a truly effective strategy. In this empirical study we examine how other people view consumers of fake luxury brands. More specifically, we consider perception of status, motivation to affiliate, and desirability as a romantic partner. To that end, we develop and test a set of research hypotheses drawing on evolutionary psychology perspectives. We show that there is no difference in perception of status between consumers who own a counterfeit luxury brand and those that own a low status brand. We also find that people have a stronger motivation to affiliate with consumers who own a low status brand. Finally, mens choice of counterfeit luxury brands can negatively influence their desirability as partners.

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An Exploratory Study of Customer Perception of International and Domestic Brands in the Context of Service Industry (1152)

Author/sEssam Bakr Ibrahim

Track: Marketing and Retail

Paper Type: Full Papers

KeywordsInternational Brands, Domestic brands, Customer perceptions

Abstract: This study consolidates past research on the factors that influence international and domestic brand perception to construct a framework of nineteen personal drivers and eight marketing factors that drive consumers preference of international versus domestic brands in the context of service hospitality industry. Our findings from a quantitative study of 150 customers in Far Asia, namely Philippines, reveal that customers perceptions of international and domestic brands are driven by an integrated set of internal and external drivers that can be clustered into three groups of factors and drivers security and image enhancement drivers, social acceptance drivers and local identity drivers. Four interviews were conducted with four restaurant owners and managers to contrast their views to those of customers insights. The findings reveal that the first two groups of factors have positive influence on international brand preference while the third set of factors and drivers has positive effects on domestic brand preference. We discuss these findings and present the study implications on marketing managers. We also offer some recommendations and suggestions for future research.

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